PLURALES: REGLAS GENERALES (Parte 2)

By 2 diciembre, 2015 Español 54 Comments

Tiempo de lectura: 4 min 21 seg

Bienvenido a la segunda parte de la formación del plural es español: ese gran olvidado. Antes de entrar en materia, si quieres consultar las reglas generales más básicas, te recomendamos visitar la primera parte.

Hoy nos centraremos en el plural de los compuestos.

Plurales internos

Se pluraliza el primer componente aunque no se separe gráficamente del segundo:

— Cualquiera (cualesquiera; pero unos cualquieras en uso nominal);

— Quienquiera (quienesquiera).

 

El plural de los compuestos: segundo elemento

a) Si constituyen una sola palabra se pluraliza solamente el segundo elemento.

Bocacalles, cumulonimbos, casatiendas

b) Los compuestos formados por la agrupación de adjetivo y sustantivo que no muestran separación gráfica hacen el plural como palabras simples:

Purasangres, quintaesencias, aguafuertes, cubalibres, tiovivos, cañabravas, caraduras, buenaventuras, cortometrajes.

Los tiovivos incluían diversas variedades de animales.

 

c) Los compuestos formados por dos adjetivos, se escriban separados por guion o unidos en una sola palabra:

Factores políticoeconómicos, conversaciones árabe-israelíes, condiciones espacio-temporales diversas.

El plural de los compuestos: primer elemento

a) Si los dos sustantivos se escriben separados aunque constituyen una unidad léxica en la que el segundo elemento añade información determinativa, marcaremos solamente el plural en el primero:

— niños prodigio, buques escuela, operaciones retorno, ciudades dormitorio, globos sonda, años luz, cafés teatro,  hombres rana, sofás cama, muebles bar, peces espada.

Se pluralizan sus dos segmentos

Con los compuestos sintagmáticos de nombre y adjetivo lo correcto, en general y con algunas restricciones, es pluralizar ambos segmentos:

— pieles rojas, cabezas rapadas, boinas verdes.

Alternancias

a) Alternan con frecuencia en el singular las dos soluciones gráficas: una palabra o dos:

— Cubalibres~cubas libres; Nochebuenas ~ Noches Buenas; padrenuestros ~ padres nuestros; arcoíris ~ arcos iris; camposantos~campos santos; bajorrelieves ~ bajos relieves;  caraduras~caras duras; guardiaciviles ~ guardias civiles.

Santa Capilla: Bajorrelieves de la entrada

Se recomienda la primera variante pero ambas se consideran correctas.

b) Si el segundo de los sustantivos puede usarse con valor adjetival caben alternancias:

— situaciones límite ~ situaciones límites;

— momentos clave ~ momentos claves;

— buques fantasma ~ buques fantasmas;

Hay numerosos buques fantasmas.

—países satélite ~ países satélites;

— empresas líder ~ empresas líderes;

— aviones espía ~ aviones espías;

— discos pirata ~ discos piratas;  

— programas piloto ~ programas pilotos; 

Verbo y sustantivo

Los compuestos de verbo y sustantivo se forman generalmente a partir de sustantivos en plural (lavaplatos, sacacorchos), que no se alteran cuando la forma se pluraliza:

— El sacacorchos o los sacacorchos; lavaplatos pequeño o lavaplatos pequeños.

Pero también pueden formarse a partir de un sustantivo singular y en esos casos hacen el plural como ese sustantivo:

— Un ganapán / unos ganapanes; un rapapolvo / varios rapapolvos; un tragaluz / unos tragaluces.

Otros casos

bienmesabes, hazmerreíres, parlaembaldes, correveidiles (o correvediles), avemarías, bienvenidas, siemprevivas, duermevelas, malentendidos (no malos entendidos),  tejemanejes, siguemepollos, vaivenes, besalamanos,  pésames, quehaceres y tentempiés.

Permanecen invariables

— Vivalavirgen

Y los acabados en -todo:

— Los curalotodo, los pegalotodo, los sabelotodo, los metomentodo,  los sanalotodo.

 

separadortranslage

Esperamos que nuestro artículo de hoy te haya sido de utilidad. Como siempre, estaremos encantados de leer tus opiniones, dudas y aportaciones.

Muchas gracias por leernos y nos vemos muy pronto, aquí, en Translage.

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